Writing Better University Essays

The quote on page 13 of the source came first in your text’s paragraph, before page 18. In 1936, Keynes said, “governments should run deficits when the economy is slow to avoid unemployment” (as cited in Richardson, 2008, p. 257). “This article helped me know the proper way to cite my essay.” Information and links for faculty members and others to use in detecting plagiarized materials. Learn how to create an annotated bibliography for a class assignment or for your own use as a researcher and writer. When organizations or corporate authors are the author of a text, the name of the organization may be shortened to its most basic title.

how to cite something in an essay

Remember to include all the articles you used in the references at the end of your essay. The in-text method requires only the page number of the source used in parentheses at the end of the quote. The parenthetical one requires you to include both the author’s last name and the page number. The only real difference is placement — footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader’s attention.


In this case, the title of the work should appear in the title element of the reference. Secondly, they can be a part of a bigger work, such as edited chapters, podcast episodes, and even songs. In this case, the title of the article or chapter or part of what does controlling idea mean the work should appear in the title element. The title of the bigger work should appear in the source element. Overcitation usually happens when writers repeat the same citation in every sentence even though the topic and source have not changed at all.

  1. Citing a book in the reference list has the same format as citing a book on the other convention’s bibliography entry discussed in the previous subsection.
  2. That’s because narrative citations emphasize the author of the work you’ve sourced your information from.
  3. However, it is highly suggested that these be included.
  4. If you’re writing a research paper, whether as a student or a professional researcher, you might want to use an essay as a source.
  5. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it?

The name and date will correspond with a full bibliographic entry at the end of the essay, under the title, “References”. When there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list. For the citation in the text, only provide the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”. If there are more than ten authors, just list the first seven in the reference list and add global regents enduring issues “et al.”. When there are multiple authors provide the last name first for the first author and list the subsequent authors using their first names first. Also, separate the names using commas and at the end of the authors element place a period. Format-wise, entries must be double spaced and the second and subsequent lines of the source are indented by half an inch from the margin.

Publishing & content management

For several titles by the same author, include a shortened version of the title after the author’s name (if the title isn’t mentioned in your text). If you have several authors with the same last name, include each author’s first initial in your in-text citation to differentiate them.

  1. You will find a lot more rules related to the citation style you’re using because there are many types of sources and exceptions to those sources.
  2. Consider which documentation style is most appropriate for your area of study.
  3. For webpages that have different authors’ names from the site name, provide the website name and the URL for the source element.
  4. Knowing how to include citations in an essay is important.
  5. In case you are using other data sources for your research, you may also consult this guide on how to cite a PowerPoint in APA.
  6. Footnotes are notes written at the bottom of the page which corresponds to a small footnote number written at the end of the relevant line of text, in superscript.
  7. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own.

Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. Although footnotes are sometimes required, endnotes have become the predominant form of notes citations. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote, https://increon.com/how-a-controlling-idea-can-dramatically-improve/ Refworks, Scholar’s Aid Lite, or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases.


It requires writers to cite sources in endnotes or footnotes. This citation provides the author with an avenue to express accountability and credibility to related literature or references used in written material. It helps an academic writer provide quotations in a research paper, as well as being commonly used for book bibliographies. It has to be said that, if you have not already done so, the first thing you need to do is talk with your instructors about the style they expect from you.

  1. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, seeThe Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.
  2. A title fragment should be used to make a connection between the use of the source and the citation for the source on the Works Cited page.
  3. The Chicago style of citing is commonly used in humanities.
  4. However, it’s formatted like a single sentence, using commas to separate the elements instead of periods.
  5. MLA format format is commonly used in liberal arts and humanities.

Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources — they how to source a website in an essay let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject.

How To Cite a Research Paper: Citation Styles Guide

These guidelines may not account for every citation situation. Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have.

how to cite something in an essay

APA style uses the author-date system for in-text citations. Type the last name of the author in parentheses, followed by a comma, then type the year of publication.

How to Write a Thesis Statement for a Research Paper: Steps and Examples

However, when you use the MLA format, you use the title “Works-Cited List” for your reference list. In this section, the rules for both in-text citation and the works-cited list will be discussed. Moreover, overcitation can also be very unethical especially when a writer cites a source as evidence even when the source does not really count as one. Sometimes, this can happen unintentionally, especially when a writer misunderstands what was cited or the implications of the information cited.

Then, add the year the work was published, also followed by a comma. If multiple sources are cited for the how to introduce a quote same statement, the author and publication year should be distinguished from other texts with a colon.

Watch Articles

The word goes back to the Latin plagiārius, a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief . There is everything to gain by using citation to show your instructors what you have been reading.

how to cite something in an essay

According to recent studies, teaching students how to perfect this craft can lead to less plagiarism in their academic writing. Type the location of the publisher, followed https://smpas.com/soy-isoflavones-estrogen-therapy-and-breast-cancer/ by a colon. Then, type the name of the publisher of the larger work, followed by a comma. Close your Bibliography entry with the year the larger work was published.

OK, So What’s an Annotated Bibliography?

If the person named is an editor, add the abbreviation “Ed.” in parentheses after their name. Add a comma, then type the title of the larger work in sentence case. Both names should be cited every time the reference is required. If a text has been authored by more than five individuals, the full listing of authors is not required in the first reference or any subsequent in-text references.

how to cite something in an essay

Keep in the context of the work and keep unrelated stuff and self-promotion out of it. To Avoid Plagiarism – Citations allow researchers to properly quote the work of others.

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